This ink utilizes an iron gall based formula to produce superior ink giving extremely fine hairlines. Developed with the help of leading penman, this ink gives us the opportunity to experience the faint hairlines and deep rich shades associated with the 19th & early 20th century penman-the American Golden Age of Ornamental Penmanship. This Ink has an antique gray/black color rather than a dark black color. For reproduction, try McCaffery's Carbon Based Prarie Night Black, a sumi ink or a gouache. For pointed pen work only. 1 oz bottle. Colors below are approximate but are not exact matches to the true ink colors.